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The term “Ahl al-Sunnah” is now the most common term in the Islamic world, some people believe that this term covers more than 70% of the followers of the Islamic nation, but the shocking truth for the dealers of this term revealed by the researcher and thinker Ali Mohammed Al-Shurafa Hammadi in his book «Muslims .. Between the religious discourse and the divine discourse», issued by «Al-Nokhba House for Printing, Publishing and Distribution», as he said: ((The term “Sunnah” was not known in the beginning of Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was the center of the message of Islam and the foundation is the Holy Quran. This is in assurance to the verse of Allah addressing Prophet Mohammed: “A Book -the Quran- is revealed to you O Muhammad, laying upon you an immense responsibility for which you have been chosen. Therefore, let it not oppress your thoughts and feelings or depress your spirits, but use it and act upon it to warn those who deny the truth and to put those who have conformed to Islam in mind of their duties.“(Al A’raf: 1)
And the verse: ” This is the religion eminently professed by all the previous Prophets, the one and only system of faith and worship established by Allah and I am Allah your Creator, therefore, worship Me and adore Me with the appropriate acts and rites.” (Al Anbiyaa: 92)
And the verse of Allah (interpretation of the meaning): ” Indeed Allah is my Creator and your Creator; worship Him, since reverence and veneration paid to Him constitute the path of righteousness » (Al Zukhruf: 64)
And the verse of Allah says ” «This is My path of righteousness; follow it, you may attain moral straightness, goodness, integrity, virtue and piety. Do not tread other paths lest you miss the path chosen to guide you into all truth. « This is what He has commended unto you so that you may hopefully entertain the profound reverence dutiful to Him»” (Al An’aam: 153)
At that time, the term “Sunnah” did not exist in the early days of Islam. Rather, the term “Muslim” was the name of all who accepted Islam as a religion without any other names. This is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) called for. This is confirmed by the verse of Allah: “And strive in the cause of Allah and make His purpose the heart of your purpose. He did not intend to put you in difficulty nor to create for you difficultness in the system of faith and worship He has chosen for you, the same system followed by your father Ibrahim . It is He -Allah- Who gave you people the descriptive and distinctive appellation «Muslims » in previous Scriptures as well as in this Book – the Quran – so that the Messenger Muhammad would be a witness of your actions and you come to be witnesses of peoples’ actions which interpret their thoughts and characterize their rival systems. Therefore, engage in the act of worship, give alms and turn your minds to Allah and see that you be under His tutelage. He is your Tutelary Guardian, and how ultimate in excellence is the Protector and the Ultimate of Ultimates to afford help!” (Al Hajj: 78)
The term “Sunnah” appeared in the middle of the Abbasid era. This era had witnessed the emergence of the various Sunni sects (Ashayara, Hanafi, Malikya, Hanbali, Shaafa’i) and other schools of thought.
It was decided to authenticate the four doctrines in the era of Al-Zaher Baybars during his reign in Egypt. The aim was to use them officially for worship to be followed as a basis for the social system in the acts of worship, relationships and litigation among people.
The establishment of the Sunni doctrine was based on accounts attributed to the companions of the prophet. It became the main reference to the Sunni sect, and various thinking schools spread from this sect. Some of these schools adopted the slogan of Takfir (considering other Muslims as unbelievers), where killing is the sentence, hatred is the motto, and the hate speech is the approach.
There are various Sunni sects with different references as follows:
(1) The Hanafis
(3) the Maalikis
(4) The Shafi’i
(11) Ahl al-Hadeeth
(12) Notification and advocacy
(13) Legal Assembly
(14) Ansar al-Sunna
(16) Hizb ut-Tahrir
(17) Atonement and Migration
(18) Soldiers of the Companions