Fasting in the month of Ramadan between Islam and the Sunni jurisprudence
Fasting in Ramadan in the legislation of the Holy Qur'an
After the revelation of the Holy Qur’an, the believers used to fast in the month of Ramadan according to the same usual inheritance. Then the fasting legislation was introduced in Madinah to talk about the month of Ramadan, which became known to Muslims as the month of the Qur’an. The Qur’an was revealed upon the heart of the Prophet Muhammad while he was in Mecca.
The first verse in the legislation of fasting said: “O you who believe with hearts impressed with the image of religious and spiritual virtues”. (Al Baqarah 183).
The first verse in the legislation of fasting did not explain the meaning of fasting. It is the abstention from eating, drinking and from the sexual intercourse with the wife. The Muslims fasted in Ramadan, and they used to make a social habit of frolicking and playing without regard for piety, the same as we do currently. So, the first verse in the legislation of fasting indicates the first rule of fasting. This rule is to perform fasting as they used to do in the same way as in the faith of Abraham. ““The prescriptive rule of fasting is decreed for you to observe as it was observed by those who came before you in time“. (Al Baqarah 183). This is to abstain from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse. In fact, they were doing these in Mecca before the legislation of the Holy Qur’an. Then; the first verse of the report of fasting concludes the behavior of the believer in accordance with their faith and behavior, that is, the goal of fasting is piety.
After a report that fasting is an inherited cult, it is necessary to observe piety in it. The following two verses come about with the enactment of new legislation that did not exist before. It is in facilitating fasting in Ramadan, and because it is a new legislation, its details are clear and repeated in two consecutive verses, “But those of you who are sick or proceeding on a journey shall compensate the fast by the same number of days at a later date“. (Al Baqarah 184). This is for the patient and the traveler, and even for the one who is able to fast, but with difficulty (for the sick and the traveler) or paying the ransom for a person who breaks his fast when he is able to fast.
Fasting, as it was known and inherited before the revelation of the new Holy Qur’an legislation, begins after the ‘Isha prayer and continues throughout the night and day until the Maghrib prayer on the next day. This leaves a short time for breaking the fasting; between the Maghrib and the ‘Isha only. This short period is enough for food and drink only. The night comes and the Muslim might find himself forced to have an intercourse with his wife after the ‘Isha prayer, at a time when he is supposed to be fasting. Then, an easement was introduced as a new legislation detailed in the verse where Allah Almighty says: “It is lawful for you to approach your wives if you will at night when not fasting following sunset, between breakfast and dawn. As fitting garments, you are mutual sources of comfort” (Al Baqarah 187). That is, the new legislation stated that it is permissible to have an intercourse with the wife on the night of fasting. Allah Almighty promises that He pardoned them and accepted their repentance, and Allowed this relief on them. Thus, the new legislation came to say to the believers “and you may eat and drink until you can distinguish between the black thread of night and the silver streak of dawn, and thenceforth you fast until darkness prevails at the close of daylight” (Al Baqara 188). Here comes the details of the new legislation for the time of breakfast in Ramadan, where it is permissible to eat and drink and have a sexual intercourse with the wife from the sunrise to dawn, when the naked eye can distinguish the white thread from the black thread.
This is the statement of the Holy Qur’an for what really needs to be a statement of new legislation known to the people for the first time or clarifies the right path introduced by people in the prevailed legislation. So, the verse was concluded by saying that this is the statement of the Holy Qur’an to the people to make them be cautious: “Thus, Allah expresses His revelations to people with distinct apprehension of all involved, so that they may hopefully learn self-restraint in reverence dutiful to Him” (Al Baqara 188)
Indeed, the statement of the Holy Quran in those few verses contained all that is required of the believer to know in the legislation of fasting. All what the Islamic scholars have made up after that, such as the narrations, fatwas, and jurisprudential rulings, are all nonsense. This is the reason that they differed in it and were busy in this difference for centuries. They wrote thousands of pages in vain. One of the reasons for this is that they wrote the rules that they want people to follow in the form of narrations attributed to the holy Prophet and then they believed their own lies. They did not think about or understand the verses of the Holy Qur’an and did not understand the philosophy of the legislation and its degrees.
They invented legislation that Allah Almighty did not approve, and attributed it falsely to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
Quoted from an article by: Ahmed Sobhi Mansour